Valter, Stéphane. “Norm and Dissidence: Egyptian Shiʿa between Security Approaches and Geopolitical Stakes.” CIRS Occasional Paper no. 23. Doha, Qatar: Center for International and Regional Studies, 2019.
Kuwait and Bahrain have rolled out some of the most invasive Covid-19 contact-tracing apps in the world, putting the privacy and security of their users at risk, Amnesty International says. The rights group found the apps were carrying out live or near-live tracking of users’ locations by uploading GPS co-ordinates to a central server.
Khomeini and Muḥammad al-Shīrāzī: Revisiting the Origins of the “Guardianship of the Jurisconsult” (wilāyat al-faqīh)
Abstract This article revisits the origins of Khomeini’s concept of the guardianship of the jurisconsult ( wilāyat al-faqīh ) and argues that his own formulation of this concept needs to be embedded in debates around the clerical mandate in the state among clerical activists in Iraq he encountered during his exile.